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HISTORY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION

08.52

A. INTRODUCTION
The birth of the Islamic religion brought by Prophet Muhammad, in the 7th century AD, created a driving force of extraordinary, ever experienced by mankind. Islam is a huge movement that has been running all time in the growth and development.
Entered and the rise of Islam to Indonesia in terms of historical and sociological very complex and there are many problems, especially about the history of the early development of Islam. There is a difference between the old opinions and new opinions. Long opinion agreed that Islam arrived in Indonesia 13 th century AD and the new opinion said that Islam was the first time to Indonesia in the 7th century AD (A. Mustofa, Abdullah, 1999: 23). But certainly, almost all historians claim that the area of Indonesia which first entered into Islam is an area of Aceh. (Taufik Abdullah: 1983)
The arrival of Islam to Indonesia conducted in a peaceful, can be viewed via the trade route, mission, marriage, Sufism and Sufi teachings, as well as arts and educational lines, which all support the process Islam was introduced and quickly developed in Indonesia.
Islamic education activities in Aceh was born, grow and develop along with the rise of Islam in Aceh. Mass conversion to Muslim communities in the trade due to the religion of Islam is a ready to use, the association of Islam with the glory, the glory of the Islamic army, teaches writing and hapalan, skill in healing and teaching of morals. (Musrifah, 2005: 20).
Mass conversion to Muslim communities in the Islamic kingdom of Aceh can not be separated from the influence of royal authority and the role of scholars and poets. Aceh became the center of Islamic studies from the time of Sultan Malik Az-Zahir power, with the informal education system in the form of halaqoh. That the continuation into the formal education system. In this context, speakers will discuss the center of Islamic studies at the Islamic Empire by limiting the discussion in the region of Aceh, with the guideline, the notion of Islamic education, in and development of Islam in Aceh, and the center of Islamic studies at the three great kingdoms of Islam in Aceh .
B. DISCUSSION
Islamic Education
Education etymologically translated into Arabic “Tarbiyah” with the verb “Robba” which means nurturing, educating, nurturing. (Zakiyah Drajat, 1996: 25)
According to expert opinion, Ki Hajar Dewantara education is the demand growth in the life of children, that education is the leading all natural forces on the children, so they are as human beings and as members of society can achieve salvation and happiness of the highest . (Hasbullah, 2001: 4)
Education is all the efforts adults in association with the children to lead the physical and spiritual development toward maturity. (Ngalim Purwanto, 1995:11). HM. Arifin said, education implies theoretically “feed” to the soul so that students get spiritual satisfaction, is also often interpreted by growing human basic skills. (HM.Arifin, 2003: 22)
According to the Law on National Education System (National Education) Chapter 1 Article 1, paragraph 1, education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, and the skills takes him, society, nation and state. (National Education Law No. 20, 2003)
Education is very useful for every individual. Thus, education is a teaching-learning process of residents get digging as early as possible, understand, and practice all the catty disepa values as admirable and desired value, and useful for life and personal growth, community, nation and state.
Islamic education is under zakiah Drajat more education aimed at improving the mental attitude which will manifest in deeds of charity, both for purposes of yourself or someone else who is theoretical and practical. (Zakiah Drajat, 1996: 25)
Thus, Islamic education is the process of guidance from educators on the development of physical, spiritual, and sense of learners towards the formation of a good Muslim person (Insan Kamil).
The Center of Islamic Studies in Early Islamic Kingdom in Aceh
a. Log in and proliferation of Islam in Aceh
Almost all historians claim that Indonesia dearah originally entered Islam in Aceh is the region. (Taufik Abdullah, 1983: 4). Based on the conclusions of seminars about the arrival of Islam to Indonesia, which took place in Medan on 17 to 20 March 1963, namely:
- Islam for the first time has entered Indonesia in the 7th century AD, and directly from Arabic.
- The area was first visited by the Muslims is the shores of Sumatra, as for the first Islamic empire was at Pasai.
- In the next pengislaman process, the Indonesian Muslims take part actively and broadcasting process conducted in a peaceful Islam.
- Description of Islam in Indonesia, go educate people and bring a high civilization in shaping the personality of the Indonesian nation. (Taufik Abdullah, 1983: 5)
The entry of Islam to Indonesia some say from India, from Persia, or from Arabic. (Musrifah, 2005: 10-11). And the path used is:
a. Trade, with access to the means of shipping
b. Mission, conducted by the preachers who came together with the merchants, the preachers could be said to be a Sufi wanderers.
c. Marriage, the marriage between Muslim traders, preachers with noble children of Indonesia, which led to the formation of the social core of Muslim families and Muslim communities.
d. Education. Economic centers have evolved into centers of education and the spread of Islam.
e. Art. A lot of lines used for the propagation of Islam, especially in Java is an art.
Form of the religion of Islam itself accelerate the spread of Islam, especially before going to Indonesia was first spread to areas of Persia and India, two areas where a lot of influence to the development of Indonesian culture. In the development of Islam in the region of Aceh, the role of preachers is very large, because the preachers are not only derived from the Arabic, but also Persian, Indian, also from the State itself.
There are two important factors that lead to easily develop the Muslim community in Aceh, namely:
1. Very strategic location in relation to the Middle East point and China.
2. The influence of Hinduism - Buddha of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang is not so deeply rooted among the people of Aceh, because the distance between Palembang and Aceh far enough. (A. Mustofa, Abdullah, 1999: 53)
While quoting Prof. Hasbullah. Mahmud Yunus, analyze the factors that lead to rapid spread of Islam throughout Indonesia (Hasbullah, 2001: 19-20), among others:
a. Islamic religion is not narrow and hard to the rules, even easily imitated by all classes of mankind, even to convert to Islam just enough to give just two kalimah creed.
b. Few duties and obligations of Islam
c. Islamic Broadcasting was done by gradually bit by bit.
d. Islamic broadcasting is done by wise.
e. Islamic Broadcasting performed with easily understandable words general, can be understood by the lower class and upper class.
Mass conversion to Islam Nusantara communities in the trade due to several reasons (Musrifah, 2005: 20-21), namely: 
1. Portilitas (ready to use) the system of the Islamic faith.
2. Islamic associations with wealth. 
When the natives met Archipelago and interact with the Muslim immigrants in the harbor, they were wealthy merchants. Because of the wealth and economic power, they can play an important role in the political and diplomatic fields.
3. Military glory. Muslims considered mighty and powerful in battle.
4. Introducing writing. Introduce Islamic religious writings to various parts of Southeast Asia, most are not familiar with writing.
5. Penghapalan taught the Qur’an. Hapalan become very important for new adherents, especially for the purposes of worship, like prayer.
6. Skill in healing. The tradition of the conversion to Islam associated with the belief that Islamic leaders smart heal. For example, the King of Patani became Muslim after cured of illness by a Shaykh of Pasai.
7. Teaching of morals. Islam offers salvation from the forces of evil and happiness in the hereafter.
Through the factors and causes, the rapid spread of Islam throughout the archipelago, so in turn, became the main religion and the majority of this country.b. Islamic Study Center At Three Islamic Kingdom in Aceh.
1. Ocean Empire era Pasai
The first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia is the kingdom of Pasai Ocean, which was founded in the 10th century AD with its first king of Ibrahim bin Malik Mahdum. The second named Al-Malik Al-Saleh and the last named Al-Malik Sabar Shah (year 1444 AD / 15th century AH). (Mustofa Abdullah, 1999: 54)
In 1345, Ibn Battuta of Morocco had stopped at Pasai government at the time Malik Az-Zahir, the king of the famous pious in religion and science Shafi’i, held lectures until Asr prayer time and fluent in Arabic and practice a simple lifestyle . (Zuhairini, et.al, 2000: 135)
Description Ibn Battuta conclusions can be drawn applicable education in the age of empire Pasai as follows:
a. Educational materials and teaching religion is the field of Shari’ah Fiqh Shafib. An informal education system in the form of study groups and halaqoh majlis
c. Concurrently government figures clergy
d. Education costs comes from the state. (Zuhairini, et.al., 2000: 136)At the time of Samudra kingdom Pasai achieve glory in the 14th century AD, then education would also have its own place. Tome Pires quoted, which states that “in Ocean Pasai many cities, where the inter-urban residents are educated people”. (M. Ibrahim, et.al, 1991: 61)According to Ibn Battuta, too, Pasai the 14th century AD, was a center of Islamic studies in Southeast Asia, and many scholars gathered from Islamic countries. Ibn Battuta states that the Sultan Malikul Zahir was the love of the clergy and science. When the day arrived Friday, the Sultan of prayer in the mosque clerics wear, after prayers held discussions with the pious religious knowledge, among others: Amir Abdullah of Delhi, and Tajudin of Ispahan. Forms of education by way of discussion is called Majlis Ta’lim or halaqoh. Halaqoh system that the students take up positions around the teacher. Teacher sitting in the middle of the circle of students in a position facing the face of student teachers.
2. Perlak Kingdom
The second Islamic kingdom in Indonesia was Perlak in Aceh. The first king Sultan Alaudin (year 1161-1186 AH / 12th century CE). Between Perlak intertwined Pasai and good cooperation so that a king was married to Princess Pasai King Perlak. Perlak an area is strategically located in the Malacca Strait coast, and free from the influence of Hinduism. (Hasbullah, 2001: 29)
Perlak Islamic kingdom also has a center of Islamic education Dayah Kala Cot. Dayah equated with Universities, the material that is taught in Arabic, monotheism, mysticism, morality, geography, linguistics and Arabic literature, history and statecraft, mantiq, Falaq and philosophy of science. Roughly the area near the East Aceh now. Founders Prince cleric Teungku Chik M. Amin, in the late 3rd century AH, 10th century AD This is the first educational center.
King of the six named Sultan Muhammad Amin Mahdum Alaudin who ruled between 1243-1267 AD, known as a wise sultan again pious. He is a scholar who founded the Islamic University which is a high Taklim Majlis was attended exclusively by students who are pious. The agency also taught and read religious books which weighs high knowledge, such as Umm Al-Imam Shafi’i essays. (A. Mustofa, Abdullah, 1999: 54)
Thus in this royal Perlak Islamic education process has been going pretty well.
3. Kingdom of Aceh DarussalamProclamation of the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam is the result of fusion of Islamic kingdom of Aceh in the western hemisphere and the Islamic kingdom Pasai Ocean in the Eastern hemisphere. Son of Sultan Abidin Shah Syamsu King was appointed by Sultan Alaudin Mughayat Ali Shah (1507-1522 AD).
The smallest territorial form of government structure Kingdom of Aceh was Gampong (Village), which is headed by a Keucik and Waki (Deputy).
Gampongs nearby and the residents to worship together on Friday at a mosque is a power called the habitation area, which holds the leadership role called Imeum habitation habitation. (M. Ibrahim, et al, 1991: 75 )
Levels of education in the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam lowest education begins Meunasah (Madrasah). Which means the study or the school, located in every village and has multi-functions include:
- As a place to learn the Qur’an- As an elementary school, with material that is taught to read and write Arabic, science of religion, language of Malays, morality and history of Islam.
Another function is as follows:- As a place of worship to pray 5 times the village.
- As the tarawih prayer and reading the Qur’an in the month of fasting.
- The feast Maulud in Mauludan.- The charity handed nature of the Idhul Fitri day before or the month of fasting
- The conduct of peace when there is a dispute between members of the village.
- Places of discussion in all matters- Location meunasah location must be different from home, so that people can immediately see which house or meunasah and know the direction of Qiblah prayers. (M. Ibrahim, 1991: 76)
Further education system in Dayah (pesantren) in Meunasah but such material was taught grammar book, a book translated in Arabic, although the meaning of their own grammar is grammar (Arab). Dayah usually near the mosque, although there are also near Teungku who has dayah itself, particularly the foster mother who had high-level lessons. Therefore, people who want to learn grammar that can not learn to sideline, for that they must choose dayah little distant from their homes and live in the foster mother called Meudagang. In the foster mother had provided little huts mamuat two people per home. Hasbullah essays in the book, History of Islamic Education in Indonesia, the term is a madrasa seringkat Rangkang Tsanawiyah, material that is taught Arabic language, geography, history, arithmetic, and morals. Rangkang also held every resident. (Hasbullah, 2001: 32)
Education in the kingdom of Aceh Darussalam really a concern. At the moment there are state institutions in charge of education and science are:
1. Seutia Hukama Hall, a science institute, where the gathering of scholars, thinkers and scholars to discuss and develop science.2. Seutia Hall Scholars, an education department in charge of educational issues and teaching.
3. Jama’ah Hall Scholars Association, a study group where the clergy and scholars gathered to exchange thoughts and discuss issues of science education studies.
Aceh at the moment is a source of knowledge with a scholar-sarjanaya famous at home and abroad. So many outsiders come to Aceh to study, even the capital of Aceh Darussalam developed into international city and a center of science.
Kingdom of Aceh has been in a relationship of friendship with the Islamic empire in the Middle East leading the Turkish empire. At the same time many scholars and poets, poets from various Islamic countries who came to Aceh. The scholars and poets teach Islamic theology (Islamic Theology) and a variety of science and write a variety of books containing the teachings of religion. Hence the teaching of Islam in Aceh and Aceh became important to the powerful Islamic kingdom in the archipelago. Among the scholars and pijangga ever come to the kingdom of Aceh, among others Muhammad Azhari who teaches science Metaphysics, Sheikh Abdul Khair Sheikh Ibn Hajar pogmatic experts in the field and mystical, Mohammad Yamani experts in the field of jurisprudence and suggested Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Hasan Gilani, who taught logic . (M. Ibrahim, et al, 1991: 88)Characters other Islamic religious education in the kingdom of Aceh was Hamzah Fansuri. He is a poet and a famous religious teacher with a wing Sufism wujudiyah. Among the works is Fansuri Hamzah al-Asrar Aufin, Syarab Al-Asyikin, and Zuiat Al-Nuwahidin. As a poet he produced works, the bird owl poem, poetry boat.
The other key cleric is Shamsuddin As-Samathrani or better known as Pasai Shamsuddin. He was a pupil of the developing Hamzah Fansuri wujudiyah understood in Aceh. Book is written, al-Qulub Mir’atul, Miratul believers and others.
Ulama and other poets who had come to the kingdom of Aceh was Sheikh Nur al-Din al-Raniri. He opposed wujudiyah understood and wrote many books about Islam in Arabic and classical Malays. Book of the biggest and highest quality in classic kesustraan Malays and contains the history of the kingdom of Aceh was the book Bustanul Salatin.
In the heyday of the kingdom of Aceh, the Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) founded by Emperor many mosques as a place of worship for Muslims, one of the famous mosque Baitul Rahman Mosque, which also serve as university and has 17 daars (faculty).
By looking at many of the scholars and poets who came to Aceh, and the Universities, it is certain that the kingdom of Aceh became the center
Islamic studies. Because of the Islamic religion is one of the factors that influence people’s lives in Aceh in the next period. According B.J. Boland, that one of Aceh is a Muslim. (M. Ibrahim, et al, 1991: 89)
C. CONCLUSION
Education is a learning process that used to engajar citizens as early as possible to explore, understand and practice all the agreed value as the value and the desired terpujikan, and useful for life and personal character development, community, nation and state. Pendidikan Islam itself is the process of guidance for students towards the formation of a good Muslim person (insan kamil)
The success and progress of education in the Islamic kingdom of Aceh, was not free from the influence of a powerful sultan and the role of the scholars and poets, both local and from outside, such as the role of education Figure Hazah Fansuri, As-Sumatrani Syamsudin, and Nur A-Syaeh Raniri, that produce great works that make Aceh as a center of Islamic study.
REFERENCES
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